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GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM (GLONASS)


                                                                           GLONASS

 ABSTRACT: Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS)
is one of the
navigational system to show ones own position on the earth any time in any
weather, anywhere. This paper addresses this satellite based navigation system
at length. The Different generations of GLONASS are discussed. In addition, how
this amazing system GLONASS works, is clearly described. GLONASS transmits two
signals, this will also clearly discussed in this paper. Finally, the paper
ends with advanced application of GLONASS.
INTRODUCTION: 
Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated
for the Russian
government by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.
It both complements and provides an alternative to the United
States
Global Positioning System (GPS) and is
the only alternative navigational system in operation with global coverage and
of comparable precision.
HISTORY: Development of GLONASS began in the Soviet
Union
in 1976. Beginning on 12 October 1982, numerous rocket launches added
satellites to the system until the “constellation” was completed in 1995.
During the 2000s, under Vladimir Putin‘s presidency, the restoration of the
system was made a top government priority and funding was substantially
increased. GLONASS is the most expensive program of the Russian Federal Space Agency,
consuming a third of its budget in 2010.
By 2010, GLONASS had achieved
100% coverage of Russia‘s
territory and in October 2011, the full orbital constellation of 24 satellites
was restored, enabling full global coverage. The GLONASS satellites’ designs
have undergone several upgrades, with the latest version being GLONASS-K.
The official LOGO of GLONASS is
shown below,
 

SYSTEM
DESCRIPTION:
     GLONASS is a global satellite navigation
system, providing real time position and velocity determination for military
and civilian users. The satellites are located in middle circular orbit at
19,100 km altitude with a 64.8 degree inclination and a period of 11 hours
and 15 minutes. GLONASS’ orbit makes it especially suited for usage in high
latitudes (north or south), where getting a GPS signal can be
problematic. The constellation operates in three orbital planes, with 8 evenly
spaced satellites on each. A fully operational constellation with global coverage
consists of 24 satellites, while 18 satellites are necessary for covering the
territory of Russia. To get a position fix, the receiver must be in the range
of at least four satellites, three of which will be used to determine the
user’s location and the fourth to synchronize clocks of the receiver and the
three other spacecraft.
SIGNALS: 
GLONASS satellites transmit two types of signals:

  •      A
    Standard Precision (SP) signal and
  •      An
    obfuscated
    High Precision (HP) signal.
DEVELOPMENT :
The Development of GLONASS is
can divided into three generations.

  • The
    true first generation of satellites is known as URAGON and has 3 – axis
    stabilized vehicles, generally weighing 1,250 kg.
  •  The
    second generation of satellites , known as GLONASS- M, were developed beginning in1990
    and first launched in 2003. These satellites possess a substantially increased
    lifetime of seven years and weigh slightly more at 1,480 kg.
  • The
    third generation of satellites, known as GLONASS- K . It is the first
    unpressurised GLONASS satellite with a much reduced mass of 750 kg. It has an
    operational lifetime of 10 years.
GROUND CONTROL:
         The ground control segment of GLONASS
is entirely located within former Soviet Union territory. The Ground Control
Center and Time Standards is located in Moscow. 
 

APPLICATIONS:
Ø  GLONASS
is used mainly for Navigational Purposes.
Ø  GLONASS
receivers are used in several aircraft , Navy ships and many other places.
Ø  The
iPhone 4S
was the first Apple product using both GPS and GLONASS navigation.In now-a-days
we can see GLONASS in many mobile devices which is used for navigational
purposes.
CONCLUSION:
       GLONASS, a satellite based navigation
system, thus can be used to determine the position of an object on earth. As
discussed above, its application field is vast and new applications will
continue to be created as the technology evolves. GLONASS can also interface
with other similar projects such as GPS and IRNSS
– India’s regional navigation system  to account for
unpredictable applications. Thus, the GLONASS constellation, like manmade stars
in the sky, can be used for guiding and navigation.

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